Native American Indian Recipes


Acorn Bread


1 cup of Acorn meal

1 cup of flour

2 tablespoons of baking powder

1/2 teaspoon of salt

3 tablespoons of sugar

1 egg, beaten

1 cup of milk

3 tablespoons of oil


Sift together, the acorn meal, white flour, baking powder, salt and sugar.

In a separate bowl, mix together egg, milk, and oil.

Combine the dry ingredients and liquid ingredients.

Stir just enough to moisten dry ingredients.

Pour into a greased pan and bake at 400ºF. for 30 minutes.




Acorn Stew



2 1/2 pounds stew meat, cubed

1 1/2 quarts water, or more as needed

2 large onions, coarsely chopped

Salt and pepper to taste

2-3 pounds acorns (enough to make 1 cup of acorn meal)



Place meat into a pot with water and onions. Bring to boil, reduce heat and simmer for 3-4 hours or until meat is very tender. Add more water if necessary. There should be about 3 cups of broth when meat has been cooked. Add salt and pepper to taste, and keep the stew warm.


Shell the acorns and grind them in food processor or blender into a very fine meal. With a slotted spoon remove the meat and onions from the pot and place into a glass bowl. Add the acorn meal and blend well. Bring the broth to boil; pour it over the meat mixture and blend well. Adjust seasoning by adding more salt and pepper if desired. Serve immediately with Indian Fry Bread.



Alligator Tail Steak



2 pounds alligator* tail meat

Juice of lemon

1 cup flour

1/2 teaspoon garlic powder

1 tsp paprika

Salt and pepper to taste

2 eggs beaten

1/2 cup lard or butter



Cut tail into strips lengthwise, 4 x 2 inches wide. Sprinkle with lemon juice. Mix flour, garlic powder, paprika, salt and pepper. Blot the alligator pieces, and dip into flour, then into beaten eggs. Let eggs drip off and dip into flour again. Heat lard or butter in a large skillet and saute the alligator pieces quickly. Do not overcook or they will be tough. Serve immediately.



Follow the above recipe and cook the alligator tail as directed. As soon as the meat is browned add 2 cups water and 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice to the skillet Cover and simmer for 2-3 hours or until very tender.



Apache Indian Bread



3 cups of flour

1 teaspoon of salt

1 teaspoon of baking powder


Mix these ingredients, add water settle at time until it becomes doughy, if it becomes sticky add more flour.

Roll to 1/4 inch thick with rolling pin.

Fry in skillet with melted lard 1/4 inch deep until golden brown.

Top with honey.




Baconed Hominy, Seminole



8 strips bacon cut into small pieces

2 pounds cooked hominy

Salt and pepper to taste

3 scallions coarsely chopped



Fry the bacon pieces in a large skillet until well browned and crisp. Add the hominy, salt and pepper and cook stirring continuously for 6-7 minutes. Add scallions and continue cooking for an additional 5 minutes. Serve immediately.


Serves 6




Baked Acorn Squash



4 medium-sized acorn squash

16 tsp honey

8 Tbs butter or margarine

Fresh ground pepper to season



Slice the squash in half crosswise and scoop out the pulp and seeds. Trim the bottoms, if necessary, so that the quash will stand hollow side up.


Place 2 teaspoons honey in the hollow of each squash, then add 1 tablespoon butter or margarine to each and a twist or two of fresh ground pepper.


Place squash in a large, shallow baking pan and bake, uncovered, in a moderate oven, 350 degrees, for about 2 1/2 hours or until the squash are tender




Baked Indian Pudding, Oneida




3 Cups Milk

4 Teaspoon Salt

4 Tablespoons Corn Meal

2 Teaspoon Ginger

1/3 Cup Molasses

2 Teaspoon Cinnamon

2 Cups Sugar

1 Cup Milk

1 Egg Beaten

Butter Size of Walnut



Scald milk. Mix together meal and molasses and stir into hot milk. Cook until it thickens stir constantly. Remove from heat, add sugar, egg, butter, salt, ginger, and cinnamon. Mix thoroughly. Pour into buttered baking dish and bake 2 hour at 300F. Pour over it one cup of milk and continue baking for 2 hours. Serve with cream or ice cream.




Baked Jicima w/ Beef



2 large jicimas

5 medium loin steaks

3 handfulls shredded cheese (3 types)

1 handfull your favorite spices (I like pico del gallo)

1/3 cup cream

butter to taste

salt and pepper to taste

corn bredding, enough to cover the steaks.

white gravy






peel and prepare thejicima as if you were making mashed potatoes

using the butter,cream,salt and pepper.

fold,dont mix too well, in the 3 cheeses and the spices.

cut the loin steaks to open like a coin purse.

stuff the jicima into the steaks,close each with a toothpick.

bread them with the corn breading.

bake in the oven at appx.375 degrees untill the meat is done,

usually about 20-30 minutes, depending on your altitude.

cover with white gravy and serve.





Baked Pumpkin



1 small pumpkin, peeled and cut into cubes

1 cup sugar

1 teaspoon salt



Place pumpkin cubes in a baking dish and sprinkle with sugar and salt. Cover pan with foil and bake in 325-degree oven until soft. Sprinkle with cinnamon.




Baked Vegetables of the Vines



2 onions, peeled and chopped

2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed

1/3 cup salad oil

2 cucumbers, zucchini or yellow crookneck squash, washed and sliced

1 large eggplant, washed and sliced

2 green peppers, washed, cored and cut into strips, about 1" wide

2 tomatoes, washed, cored and sliced

1 Tbs salt

1/4 tsp fresh ground black pepper

1 tsp oregano

1/4 tsp cumin seed

1/4 tsp powdered dill

3 Tbs salad oil



In a flameproof oven casserole, saute the onions and garlic in the 1/3 cup salad oil until golden. Remove half of the onions and set aside.

Mix together salt, fresh ground black pepper and herbs.

Lay sliced cucumbers on top of the onion mixture in the casserole; sprinkle with one third of the mixed seasonings and 1 Tbs oil.

Add a layer of sliced eggplant; sprinkle with a third of the seasonings and 1 tablespoon oil.

Cover casserole and bake for 1 hour in a moderate oven, 350 degrees.

Remove from oven, add a layer of sliced tomatoes, top with remaining onions, return to oven, and bake uncovered for 15 minutes more.

Serve at once.







2 1/2 cups Flour

1/4 tsp Salt

2 tbs Oil

1 cup Milk

1 Egg

2 tsp Baking powder



Mix flour, salt and baking powder in a bowl. Mix together milk, egg and oil and add to flour. Mix well. Knead on a floured surface. Pat down the dough until it is about 1 inch thick. Cut into 12 equal pieces.


Bake at 400F until brown, approx 1/2 hour OR heat a frying pan, using 3 tbsp oil to cook the pieces. Serve hot with jam.




Bear Chops



6 med Bear Chops

1 cl Garlic, Halved

2 tbs Bacon Fat

1 lrg Onion, Chopped

4 lrg Carrots, Diced And Cooked

4 tbs Unbleached All-Purpose Flour

4 tbs Chili Sauce

1/2 Cup Dry Wine

Salt And Pepper To Taste



Rub the chops with the halved clove of garlic. Melt the bacon fat in a skillet and sear the chops on both sides. Place the chops in a lightly grease baking dish. Saute the onions and carrots in the skillet until the onions are transparent but not browned. Mix in the flour, chili sauce and wine. Cook until thickened. On top of each chop, place an equal amount of the carrot mixture. Pour 1 cup of water into the baking dish; cover with foil and bake at 375 Degrees F. for 60 to 70 minutes or until tender.




Berry Corn Cobbler



1 qt fresh strawberries or blackberries, washed (if you use strawberries, slice them in half)

1/2 cup sugar




1 cup corn meal

1/4 cup sugar

1 tsp baking powder

1 tsp salt

1/2 cup sour milk

2 Tbs melted butter or margarine




1/4 cup honey

1 Tbs melted butter or margarine

1 Tbs lemon juice



Place berries in a 2-quart baking dish, and sprinkle with sugar. For the topping, mix together all dry ingredients, then quickly stir in the milk and melted butter or margarine. Drop batter by the tablespoon on top of berries, forming a design of rounds. Mix together sauce ingredients, and pour over batter and exposed berries.

Bake in a moderately hot oven, 375 degrees, for 1 hour. Serve at room temperature.


Southern Indian women, being both creative and experimental cooks, sweetened their corn-meal batter, mixed it with wild blackberries or strawberries, and baked the two together in to a kind of cobbler.




Berry Soup, Sioux



1 1/2 lb Chuck steak, 1" thick, boned and trimed of excess fat (or optional buffalo)

3 tbs Peanut oil

1 Medium white onion, peeled and sliced

2 cups Beef stock

1 cup Fresh blackberries

1 tbs Light honey

Salt to taste



Broil or grill the meat until browned on both sides, allow to cool. In a Dutch oven, heat the oil and brown the onions. Cut the meat into bite-sized pieces and add to the pot. Add the blackberries and enough beef stock to barely cover the meat. Stir in the honey and simmer the meat, covered, until it is very tender, about 1 hour. If the berries are too tart, add honey to taste, add salt and serve in bowls.




Blue Corn Meal Spoon Bread




1/4 cup all purpose flour

1 tsp. salt

1 tsp. baking powder

3/4 cup blue corn meal

1 egg, beaten

1 cup milk

1 tsp. grated onion

2 Tbs. butter

1/2 cup milk

Dash garlic salt


Combine flour, salt, baking powder and corn meal in a mixing bowl. Set aside. In a separate smaller bowl combine the egg, 1 cup milk and onion. Stir into dry mixture until well blended. Melt the butter in a 1-1/2 quart baking dish or casserole dish. Pour in batter. Pour the half cup of milk over the top. Dash with garlic salt. Bake in 375º F. oven 45-50 minutes.




Blueberry Fritters



2 9-oz packages frozen blueberries

4 cups flour

3/4 cups sugar

3 1/2 tsp baking powder

3 cups shortening or oil for deep-fat frying

5 eggs



Thaw the blueberries well; drain off syrup and save. Sift together the dry ingredients. Measure the blueberry syrup. There should be about 1/2 cup. If not, add water to complete the measure.


Place shortening or oil in a heavy, deep kettle and begin heating gradually. By the time you have finished mixing the fritters, the fat will register 350 degrees on a deep-fat-frying thermometer and be just right for frying.


Beat the eggs with the blueberry syrup until foamy. Mix quickly into the dry ingredients, and fold in the berries. Drop from a tablespoon into the hot fat. Turn the fritters frequently as they cook so that they become chocolate brown on all sides. Drain on paper toweling and serve hot.




Calabacitas (Skillet Squash)




5 cubed small summer squash

1 diced large onion

2 roasted peeled green chiles or about 1 small can diced green chile

1 tablespoon shortening or oil

3/4 cup shredded longhorn cheese


Sauté onion in shortening or oil until soft. Add squash and stir until almost tender. Add chiles; simmer briefly. Sprinkle on cheese and stir until melted.



Carne Adobado (Spiced Pork)



2 cups red chile puree or 12 tablespoons chile powder

3 pounds fresh, lean pork

2 teaspoons salt

1 tablespoon oregano

2 cloves garlic, mashed


Cut pork into strips. Mix other ingredients, add to pork strips, and let stand in cool place for 24 hours. Cut meat into cubes and brown in small amounts of oil. Add chile sauce and simmer one hour or more.


To serve, add more fresh chile sauce and cook until tender.




Cat’s Butter Noodle Soup



4 full breasts of chicken

Enough water to cover

4 tablespoons butter

1/2 gal. milk

2 oz. sharp cheddar cheese

6 slices American cheese

1/2 -3/4 pound mozzarella cheese

8 bouillon cubes (no MSG)

2 cloves garlic

Pepper & parsley

Your favorite noodles






Place chicken in big pot, add enough water to cover, cook till done & tender.

Remove from broth to cool, then strain the broth, return to pot and lower heat to simmer, then add butter, milk, cheeses, bouillon cubes, garlic, parsley & pepper.

Stir occasionally.

Take chicken and remove skin, bone & gristle, shred chicken & add to broth.

Cook noodle in another pan till al dente.

Add to soup, stir cook a few more minutes then serve.




Cherokee Bean Bread



2 cups of seasoned cooked pinto beans

1 cup of liquid from beans

2 cups of cornmeal

1 teaspoon of baking powder

1 teaspoon of salt

2 beaten eggs

1/2 cup of milk


In a large bowl mix cornmeal, baking powder and salt.

Stir in the milk, eggs, beans and bean liquid.

Pour into greased pan.

Bake at 450 degrees for 20 minutes or until done and lightly browned.




Cherokee Chestnut Bread



1 quart of hulled, peeled chestnuts

1 quart of cornmeal

1/2 teaspoon of soda

1/2 teaspoon of salt

1 cup of sugar

2 cups of water

20 large hickory leaves or 10 corn blades


Boil the chestnuts about 3 minutes, then peel.

Boil peeled chestnuts about 15 minutes, in 1 cup sugar and 2 cups water.


Add chestnuts to sifted cornmeal to which salt and soda has been added.

Add enough water to this mixture to make a stiff dough.

Knead well to make firm bread.

If hickory leaves are used, tie with string.

If corn blades are used, wash and scald them in hot water.

Put dough on large end of blades and be sure all sides are covered with blade.

Tie end of blade in a loop knot.

Both leaves and corn blades should be scalded before use.

Drop bread in boiling water and simmer for 1 hour until done.




Cherokee Chicken



1/4 cup vegetable oil

1 garlic clove, minced

2 Tbsp. butter or margarine

2 Tbsp. minced onion

1 green pepper, minced

salt and pepper to taste

1 frying chicken, disjointed

8 oz. can whole cranberry sauce



Heat oil and butter in a 12 inch skillet. Add chicken; cook until golden brown on all sides. Pour off all but 2 Tbsp. fat. Add green pepper, garlic and onion; cook until soft. Add cranberries, salt and pepper. Cover, simmer 25 minutes. Serves 4 to 6. Cranberries are a substitute for wild berries which were originally used in this recipe.




Cherokee Corn Cob Jelly, Cherokee



12 Ears fresh corn

4 cups Water

4 cups Sugar

13 fluid ounce package of liquid fruit pectin



Cut corn from cobs and reserve for another use. Place cobs in water and bring to a boil. Cover and cook for 12-15 minutes. Remove cobs and strain liquid through cheesecloth. If neccessary, add water to make 3 cups. Place liquid in a saucepan and stir in sugar. Bring to a boil and cook until sugar is dissolved. Stir in pectin and cook 1 minute longer. Remove from heat, skim and spoon into sterilized jars. Seal and store.


Makes 3 cups.




Cherokee Huckleberry Bread



2 cups Self-rising flour

1 Egg

1 cup Sugar

1 stick butter

1 cup Milk

1 teaspoon Vanilla extract

2 cups Berries (huckleberries or blueberries)

Cream eggs, butter and sugar together. Add flour, milk, and vanilla. Sprinkle flour on berries to prevent them from going to the bottom. Add berries to mixture. Put in baking pan and bake in over at 350 degrees for approximately 40 minutes or until done.




Cherokee Pecan Soup



3 1/2 pounds of stewing chicken or rabbit parts

3 quarts of water 1 onion, chopped

1 cup of chopped pecans

Salt and ground pepper to taste

1 tablespoon of minced fresh dill, optional


In a large stock pot, combine the chicken, water, and onion.

Bring to a boil.

Reduce the heat, cover and simmer for 3 to 4 hours.

Remove the chicken from the pot.

Once cool enough to handle, shred the meat and discard the skin and bones.

Return the meat to the pot.

Stir in the pecans and simmer, uncovered, for 5 to 10 minutes longer.

Season with salt, pepper and dill.


Serves 6




Cherokee Pepper Pot Soup



1 lb Venison or beef short ribs or shanks

2 qt Water

2 lg Onions, quartered

2 Ripe tomatoes, seeded and diced

1 lg Sweet bell pepper, seeded and diced

1 c Fresh or frozen okra

1/2 c diced potatoes

1/2 c sliced carrots

1/2 c Fresh or frozen corn kernels

1/4 c Chopped celery

Salt and ground pepper to taste


Put meat, water, and onions in a heavy soup kettle.

Cover and bring to a boil over high heat.

Reduce heat to low and simmer for 3 hours.

Remove meat, let cool, and discard bones, returning meat to pot.

Stir in remaining vegetables and simmer, partially covered for 1 1/2 hours.

Season with salt and pepper.

Serves 4 to 6.




Cherokee Spiced Jerusalem Artichokes, Cherokee



1 lb Jerusalem artichokes or "sunchokes"

1/2 cup Cider vinegar

1/4 cup Honey

1/2 tsp Mustard seed

1/4 tsp Dill seed

1 tbs Chopped fresh dill

Salad greens, for serving



According to the text, the Jerusalem Artichoke is an ancient and still popular Indian food. It IS a native North American tuber. Grows from the roots of a perennial sunflower. Scrub Jerusalem Artichokes and cut into 1/4" slices. (Scrub to remove any sand or dirt particles sticking to the skin, and they DO stick there... use a mushroom brush, or similar). Blanch slices in boiling water for 1 minute, drain and set aside. Place remaining ingredients in a saucepan and bring to a boil. Pour mixture over sliced artichokes and marinate several hours, refigerated. Serve as a salad, on a bed of greens.




Cherokee Succotash



2 lb fresh or dry Lima beans* (small ones are best)

3 cups fresh corn cut from cob

4-6 wild onions* (pearl onions may be substituted)

salt to taste

pepper to taste*(not in original recipe but good)

2 tbs melted bacon fat* (originally bear fat)

2 pieces smoked ham hock*(originally smoked bear meat)

3 qts water



Soak beans, if using dry ones, for 3-4 hours. Bring the water to a boil then add the beans. Cook at a moderate boil for 10 minutes then add the corn, ham hocks, salt & pepper, and onions. Reduce heat and cook for 1 hour on a low heat.




Cherokee Sweet Potato Bread



1 quart of cornmeal or (1/2 qt. meal and 1/2 qt. flour)

1 teaspoon of soda

3 cups of diced sweet potatoes

12 corn blades


Mix cornmeal, soda and potatoes with enough boiling water to make a stiff dough.

Knead well to make firm bread.

Wash corn blades and scald them in hot water.

Put dough on large end of blades and be sure all sides are covered with blade and tie end of blade in a loop.

Drop bread in boiling water.

Boil 45 minutes.




Cherokee Yam Cakes



1 cup mashed yams or sweet potatoes

2 cups sifted flour

1 1/2 teaspoons sugar

1 1/2 teaspoons salt

2 1/2 teaspoons baking powder

1/2 cup salad oil

1/2 cup milk


Directions: Sift flour, baking soda, sugar and salt into a bowl. Pour oil and milk into a measuring cup but do not stir. Add to yams. Blend well. Add to flour mixture and mix lightly with fork until mixture holds together. Turn dough out onto a floured board and knead gently until smooth (about 12 kneading strokes). Roll dough about 1/4" thick and cut into rounds with floured biscuit cutter. Place rounds on a baking sheet. Bake at 425º for 10-20 minutes. Serve hot, or split when cold and toast.




Chicken with Pumpkin Seed Sauce



1 4-lb roasting chicken

4 cups hot chicken stock, or more if needed

3/4 cup pumpkin seeds

8 black peppercorns

1/8 tsp cumin seeds

2 to 3 tomatillos or green tomatoes

2 to 4 hot green chilies (jalapeno or serrano), roasted, peeled, and seeded

4 green onions, with tops

2 cloves garlic, mashed

2 Tbs chicken fat or lard

1 bunch young radish leaves or mustard greens

2 large romaine lettuce leaves

4 sprigs fresh coriander (cilantro)



Put whole chicken in a casserole, cover with the stock, and bring to a simmer. Cover pot and poach chicken just below the simmering point over very low heat or in a very low oven (275 degrees) for 1 hour. Remove chicken from stock and let it cool enough to carve it.


Toast the pumpkin seeds together with the peppercorns and cumin in a hot ungreased skillet about 5 minutes, stirring constantly to prevent scorching. Put into a blender and grind fine.


Remove outer husks from the tomatillos, put them in a pan with cold water to cover, and bring to a simmer. Simmer 10 minutes, drain, then add them to the blender with 1/2 cup of their liquid and blend to a smooth thick puree. Chop all the remaining ingredients and add them to the blender. Add chicken stock, if needed, to thin the puree. Pour sauce into the skillet and simmer about 10 minutes to evaporate some of the liquid.


Carve chicken in 4 or more pieces and add to the sauce, coating the pieces well. If possible,let chicken sit overnight in the sauce so that the seasoning permeates and the hotness of the chili diminishes. Reheat gently so that sauce does not boil. Serve hot or at room temperature.




Chitimacha Baked Duck



Cleaned ducks

Salt and pepper


Bell pepper

Celery and garlic (to taste)




Place cleaned ducks in large pot. Add salt and pepper, onion, bell pepper, celery and garlic (to taste).

Cover with water and gently boil till tender.

Heat oven to 350°.

Remove ducks from water. Place in baking dish. Put pats of margarine in and on the ducks. Bake till brown.




Choctaw Hunter's Stew



2 lbs. deer meat

3 stalks celery

2 Tbsp. beef suet

3 medium onions

2 tsp. salt

2 potatoes

1/2 tsp. pepper

1 large can tomatos

6 carrots



Cut meat in chunks, brown suet. Add all ingredients, cover with water. Cook until meat is tender.




Comanche Stew



5 lb Beef, stewing

3 lb Bacon or salt pork

1 ea Hen (4 lb)

12 1/2 cup Tomato, canned

7 1/2 cups Corn, kernel

7 1/2 cups Peas, green

2 pt Oysters

4 ea Onion, large

3 ea Chile ancho

8 lb Potato

1 Salt; to taste

1 Pepper; to taste

1 Cayenne; to taste

1 Rabbit (opt)

1 Game birds (opt)

1 Squirrel (opt)



Put all meat and the chiles in a stew kettle in boiling water to cover, and cook for two to two and a half hours. Then add potatoes, tomatoes, and onions, and cook for about half an hour before adding the corn and peas. The oysters should be added about 15 minutes before the stew is removed from the fire, and may be left out entirely. The stew should cook in all about four hours.




Corn Pone



1 cup corn meal

1/2 tsp salt

1 tsp baking powder

2 Tbs bacon drippings

1/2 cup milk



Mix corn meal, salt and baking powder. Stir in bacon drippings and milk. Grease a large, heavy skillet with bacon drippings. Drop batter from a tablespoon, shaping into 4 pones. Brown on both sides. Serve hot with lots of butter. Pones, or flattened cakes of corn meal and water, were the basic, everyday breads of southern tribes.




Corn Pudding



2 cups green corn cut from cob

1 zucchini, diced

1 small green pepper, diced

2 tablespoons shelled sunflower seeds or shelled roasted piñon nuts, finely chopped


Blend or mash all ingredients together until milky. Bring to boil and simmer until mixture reaches a pudding-like consistency. Serve hot with butter or chile sauce.




Corn Stuffing, Seminole



3 tablespoons lard or shortening

2 stalks celery, minced

1 medium onion, minced

2 cups corn bread, crumbled

2 eggs, beaten

1/2 cup chicken broth

1 teaspoon dry sage

Salt and pepper to taste



Heat lard in a skillet and saute celery and onion until just limp, but not browned. Place corn bread, eggs, chicken broth, sage, salt and pepper into a bowl and toss lightly. Add the sauteed celery and onions, and toss again.




Cranberry Fritters



1 cup fresh cranberries, washed and drained well

3 cups flour

1 1/4 cup sugar

2 Tbs baking powder

1/2 tsp salt

1 cup plus 2 Tbs milk

3 cups shortening or oil for deep-fat frying.



Place the cranberries on paper toweling and dry well. Sift together the dry ingredients and mix in the milk, a little at a time, to make a stiff dough.


Flour your hands well, pinch off a small piece of dough (about 1 teaspoon), place a cranberry in the center, and roll into a ball with the cranberry inside. The balls should be about the size of large marbles.


Place the shortening or oil in a deep heavy kettle, and heat till it registers 375 degrees on a deep-fat frying thermometer.


Drop the fritters into the hot fat and fry, turning, until deep golden brown on all sides. Drain on paper toweling.




Curried Moose Burgers



1 Pound Ground Moose

4 Tbls Bacon Drippings

1 Small Can Tomato Sauce (6 Ounces?)

2 Large Onions, Chopped

1/2 Tsp Horseradish

1 1/2 Tsp Curry Powder



Shape the meat into patties. Fry in the cooking oil, over medium heat, until well browned on both sides. Stir in the remaining ingredients; cover and simmer for 5 minutes or until the meat is well done, turning the meat once. Serve the remaining sauce with the meat.




Elder Blossom Fritters



2 cups fine white cornmeal

1 cup water

1 egg, slightly beaten

1 tablespoon maple syrup

16 elder blossom clusters

1/4 cup corn oil for frying


Prepare batter by beating together the cornmeal, egg, water and maple syrup.  Wash elder blossom clusters and let dry.  Heat the oil on a griddle and drop the batter by large tablespoons onto it.  Immediately place 1 blossom cluster in the center of each raw fritter and press lightly into the batter.  Fry for 3 - 5 minutes, or until golden brown.  Flip and fry for 3 minutes on the other side.  Drain on paper towel.   Serve hot with maple syrup.  An electric skillet may be used in place of the griddle.  8 servings.




Fish Chowder, Canadian Sioux



1 cup Chopped onion

4 cups Cubed potatoes

1 tbs Salt

1/8 tbs Pepper

5 cups Raw fish, 3/4" cubes

1 qt Boiling water

2 cups Milk

1 cup Half & half cream

1 ea Parsley or chives



Add potatoes, onions, salt and pepper to water. Cook about 10 min, until veg are soft, but not completely cooked. Add fish and cook 10 min. Add milk and light cream, stir and heat 15 min longer. DO NOT BOIL. Serve with parsley or chives.




Fried Frog Legs, Seminole



2 eggs, well beaten

2 tablespoons milk or more if needed

2/3 cup cornmeal

Salt and pepper to taste

2 1/2 pounds frog legs

1 cup vegetable oil



Preheat oven to 150F. In a bowl combine the beaten eggs and milk. Use more milk if needed to form a batter which resembles a very thick cream. Add cornmeal, salt and pepper, and whisk until smooth. Wash and dry the frog legs. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and dip thoroughly into batter.


In a large skillet heat about 1/2 inch of oil and fry the frog legs until golden brown on all sides. Keep the cooked frog legs on a paper towel lined baking sheet in 150F oven until ready to serve.


Serves 4 to 6




Fried Green Tomatoes, Seminole



4 large green tomatoes

1 teaspoon salt

Pinch black pepper

2 cups coarse ground yellow cornmeal

Lard or vegetable shortening



Slice green tomatoes into 1/2 inch slices, sprinkle generously with salt. Let stand for 10-15 minutes. Blot dry with paper towels, and sprinkle with pepper. Dip the tomato slices into the cornmeal. In a large skillet heat lard until it begins to smoke, and fry the tomato slices until brown on both sides. Serve immediately.


Serves 4 to 6




Fried Whitefish



2 pounds of dressed whitefish

1 teaspoon of salt

2 eggs, beaten

1/2 cup of flour

1/4 cup of cornmeal

1/4 cup of bread crumbs

Fat for frying


Salt the fish and dip in eggs, then coat with the mixture of flour, cornmeal and bread crumbs.

Fry in hot oil for 4 to 5 minutes on each side.




Frozen Deer Liver Fry



1 Pound Fresh Deer Liver

1/2 Tsp Salt

1 Tsp Basil

1/4 Cup Unbleached All-Purpose Flour

1/4 Tsp Pepper



Soak the liver in saltwater for two hours. Drain and pat dry.


Freeze the whole liver and slice into thin slices while froxen.


Dredge each slice in the seasoned flour. Pan fry in oil over medium heat until tender.




Gooseberry Cobbler



2 cups flour

1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons corn meal

1/2 teaspoon baking powder

1 teaspoon salt

3/4 cup butter or margarine

3/4 cup boiling water

2 (15 oz) cans, sweetened

1 whole gooseberries

1 teaspoon honey

juice of 1/2 lemon



Sift the flour with 1/2 cup corn meal, baking powder and salt. Using pastry blender or two knives, cut in butter or margarine. Quickly add the boiling water, mixing in well. Divide the dough in half, and pat half of it in a buttered 8"x8"x2" baking pan. Sprinkle with 1 Tb corn meal. Mash half of the gooseberries in their syrup, then stir in remaining gooseberries, honey and lemon juice; pour over the dough. Top with remaining dough; sprinkle with remaining Tb corn meal. Bake in very hot oven (425F) oven for 30 minutes, or until top is lightly browned. Cut into squares and serve.




Green Chile Stew With Pork, Southwest



3 lb Boneless pork, cubed 1/2"

3 tbs Peanut oil

3 Stalks celery, chopped

2 Medium tomatoes, diced

7 Green chiles, roasted, peeled, seeded, chopped

4 Cloves garlic, peeled and crushed

Chicken stock or water to cover

Salt to taste

jalapeno salsa (optional)



Brown the pork in oil in batches in a heavy iron skillet. Place the meat in a 3-4 quart covered casserole and add the remaining ingredients. Deglaze the skillet with the chicken broth (water) and add to the casserole. Barely cover the ingredients with water or broth. Cover and simmer until the stew is thick and meat very tender, about 1 1/2 hours. Add salt to taste before serving.




Green Onion Soup



12 to 14 green onions, washed and sliced

4 dried juniper berries

6 cups of chicken broth

Salt and pepper to taste


In a soup pot, combine the onions, juniper berries and broth.

Bring to a boil, then simmer for 30 to 40 minutes.

Season with salt and pepper.


Serves 6




Hidatsa Stuffed Sugar Pumpkin, Hidatsa



1 Sugar pumpkin, 4-5 pounds

2 tsp Salt

1/2 tsp Dry mustard

2 T Rendered fat

1 lb Ground buffalo, venison or beef

1 Medium onion, chopped

1 cup Cooked wild rice

3 Eggs, beaten

1 tsp Crushed, dried sage

1/4 tsp Pepper



Preheat oven to 350 deg F.


Cut the top off the pumpkin and remove strings and seeds. Reserve seeds for another use. Prick the cavity with a fork and rub with 1 teaspoon salt and the mustard. Heat fat in a large skillet, add meat and onion and saute over medium-high heat until browned. Off the heat, stir in wild rice, eggs, remaining salt, sage and pepper. Stuff pumpkin with the meat mixture. Place 1/2" water in the bottom of a shallow baking pan. Put pumpkin in the pan and bake for 1 1/2 hours, or until tender. Add more water to the pan as neccessary to avoid sticking. To serve, cut pumpkin into wedges, giving each person pumpkin and stuffing.




Hopi Corn Stew With Blue Dumplings, Hopi




2 tbs Bacon drippings

1 1/2 lb Ground goat or beef

1 Medium onion, chopped

1 green bell pepper, chopped

1 tbs Ground New Mexico red pepper

4 cup corn kernels

1 Small zucchini

1 Small yellow squash

4 cups Water

2 tbs Whole wheat flour

Salt to taste


Blue Dumplings:


2 cups Blue cornmeal

2 tsp Baking powder

2 tbs Bacon drippings

1/2 tsp Salt

2/3 cup Milk




The Stew:

Heat drippings over medium-high heat in a large stew-pot or Dutch oven. Add the meat and saute until lightly browned. Stir in onion, pepper and ground chili. Saute until onion is translucent, 3-4 minutes. Stir in corn, zucchini and squash and add enough water to cover. Bring to a boil and reduce heat to medium-low and simmer 30-40 minutes, until meat and vegetables are tender. In a small bowl, combine flour and 2 tablespoons broth from the stew. Whisk back into the stew and simmer until thickened. Add Blue Dumplings to the stew during the last 15 minutes of cooking time.


The Dumplings:

In a mixing bowl combine cornmeal, baking powder, drippings and salt. Stir in enough milk to make a stiff batter. Drop by tablespoons into the stew during the last 15 minutes of cooking.




Hopi Venison Stew



2 pounds of venison, cut into 1 1/2 inch cubes

1/2 cup of unbleached flour

1/2 cup of vegetable oil

1 medium onion, chopped

1 cup of diced celery

1/4 cup of hot or milk fresh green chilies

or a combination of the two peeled, seeded and diced

or 1/2 of a 4 ounce can

4 cups of water

1 tablespoon of dried Mexican oregano

1 1/2 cups of sliced carrots

2 potatoes, peeled and cut into 1/2 inch cubes

1 cup of diced yellow turnip (rutabaga)


Pat venison dry with a clean towel and dredge lightly in flour.

Heat the oil in a large skillet and brown the meat well on all sides.

Transfer the meat to a stew pot or Dutch oven.

In the same oil, sauté onion, celery, and chilies until the onion is translucent.

Add the vegetables to the pot along with the water and oregano.

Bring the stew to a boil.

Reduce the heat to low, cover and simmer for 1 1/2 to 2 hours, or until the meat is almost tender.

Add the carrots, potatoes, and turnips.

Cook an additional 20 to 30 minutes, until the potatoes are tender.


Serves 6




Hot Spices Apricots



1 box (11 oz) dried apricots

1 lemon, sliced

1 stick cinnamon

3 whole allspice

6 Tbs maple syrup

water for cooking



Place all ingredients in a medium-sized saucepan. Add enough water to make a depth of about 1/2 inch in the pan. Simmer, stirring occasionally, for 30 minutes. Add more water if needed. Serve hot as a dessert or as a spread for Squaw Bread.


Makes 4 to 6 servings.







8 Ears of fresh corn w/husks

1/2 tsp Salt

1/2 tsp black pepper

3 tbs Butter

1 tsp Sugar

1 Onion, chopped

1/4 cup Milk (evaporated is best)

1 Tomato peeled, chopped

2 Eggs, beaten



Cut corn off of the cobs. Save cobs & husks Take the largest husks, put into a pan of boiling water to soften. Heat the butter in a pan, add the onion, & cook til soft. Add the tomato, salt & pepper, & sugar and cook for 5-6 minutes. Add the corn, milk, & eggs and cook for 10 minutes.


Stir constantly while this step is in progress. Remove the husks from the water and dry. Place 3 Tblspns of the corn mixture on the center of each husk. Fold the sides of the husks over to form a small package. (use 2 leaves if you need to do so) tie with string. Place cobs in the bottom of the pot of boiling water and place the humitas on top of the cobs. Cover pot for 30 minutes. Serve hot.




Inagami-Pakwejigan (Soft Bread)



1 3/4  cups Water

2/3   cup White corn flour

3/4   tsp Salt

Margarine or shortening

Sunflower seeds


Bring the water to a boil.  Mix together the flour & salt.  Pour the boiling water onto the dry ingredients while stirring.  Continue to

stir until the mixture becomes thick & uniform.Serve in a bowl topped with margarine & the sunflower seeds.




Indian Beans



1 diced onion

1 green pepper, chopped

1 medium sized can of tomatoes

1/4 cup of brown sugar

3 tablespoons of molasses

2 cans of pork and beans, drained

2 can of lima beans, drained

2 cans of kidney beans


Brown onion and green pepper in oil.

Drain and add tomatoes.

Mix together brown sugar and molasses.

Add beans.

Mix together and bake at 350 degrees for 45-60 minutes.




Indian Black Bean Soup



1 cup sliced leeks

1/3 cup oil

2 cloves garlic, crushed

2 lb canned black beans

1/2 cup water

1 tsp salt

1/8 tsp fresh ground pepper



Saute the leeks in the oil in a large saucepan until golden.

Add the garlic and half the beans with their liquid.

Mash up the beans with a fork.

Add the rest of the beans, with their liquid but do not mash.

Stir in the water, salt and pepper, and simmer, covered, for 40 minutes, stirring occasionally. Serve hot.




Indian Cake



2 cups Sugar

3/4 cups Bacon grease

2 cups Water or milk

1 cup Raisins

1 tsp Cloves

1 tsp Nutmeg

1 tsp Allspice

1/2 tsp Salt

3 1/2 cups Flour

1 tsp Baking soda

2 tsp Baking powder

1 cup Nuts; chopped



Put sugar and bacon grease into a cast iron pot and heat. Stir in water or milk, raisins, cloves, nutmeg, allspice and salt. Bring to a boil; allow to boil 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Take pot from stove and allow to cool. Sift together flour, baking soda and baking powder. Add this to cooled mixture and beat thoroughly. Stir in nuts. Pour batter into buttered baking pan.


Bake @ 350 degrees for 40 minutes.


This cake is to be eaten plain or sprinkled with some powdered sugar.




Indian Corn Sticks



1 Cup Cornmeal

2 Cups Molasses

1/3 Cup Flour

2 Teaspoon Salt

1 Cup Milk

1 Egg

2 Tablespoons Lard Melted



Mix cornmeal, flour, salt. Add milk, egg and lard; beat until smooth. Fill well-greased cornstick pans almost to the top (or pour into a greased 8 in. pan). Bake in a preheated 425 oven for 12 to 15 minuets. Serve with molasses or maple syrup.




Indian Fry Bread 1



1 1/4 cups all-purpose flour sifted

1/4 teaspoon salt

1/2 tablespoon shortening

About 1 cup hot water

Shortening or oil for frying



Sift flour and salt into a bowl. Add the shortening and blend well. The water should be hot, but not boiling. Add water a little at a time, blending well. The dough should be soft but not sticky. You may need a little more or less water. Blend well and knead for 1-2 minutes. Turn out on to a floured board and knead until very smooth. Divide into little balls. Cover and let rest for 3040 minutes.


Roll out each ball as thin as possible, into about 4-5 inch in diameter circles. Heat 1/2 cup shortening or oil in a skillet and drop each piece of dough into the fat. Press down in the center with a spoon. Release. When they are puffed up, turn and brown on the other side. Drain them on paper towels and serve hot. May be made in advance and reheated.


Makes about 24 pieces




Indian Fry Bread #2, Navaho



3 cups Flour

1 1/2 tsp Baking Powder

1/2 tsp Salt

1 1/3 cup Water;warm

Vegetable Oil; for frying



Mix the flour, baking powder and salt together Add the water and knead the dough until soft. Roll the dough until 1/4 inch thick, then cut out rounds 4 inches in diameter. Fry the bread in 2 to 3 inches of hot oil until puffed and browned on both sides.




Indian Meat Pies



Indian Fry Bread Dough

2 Pounds Ground Beef

1/4 Teaspoon Marjorie

1/4 Teaspoon Rosemary

1/4 Teaspoon Thyme

Medium Onion Chopped

1 Medium Green Pepper, Chopped

1 Teaspoon Salt, Pepper to Taste



Brown meat, pour of grease. Add pepper, onion, spices and saute 5 minuets. Pinch off enough dough to make 15 patties, 6 inches in diameter. Fill each dough patty with 2 tbs of mixture, fold over, seal edge with tines of fork dipped in flour. Fry, turning once to a light brown. Drain on paper towels. Pork, chicken, or turkey can also be used.




Indian Peanut Dip



1 cup of smooth natural peanut butter

1/2 cup of onion, minced

1/4 cup of  fresh lemon juice

1 tablespoon of soy sauce

1/2 teaspoon of garlic, minced (or 1/4 tsp. garlic powder)

1 teaspoon of ground coriander

1/4 cup of fresh parsley, minced

Fresh broccoli florets

Celery strips 1" long


In a blender or food processor, combine first seven ingredients and blend about 1 minute or until well mixed.

Serve the dip at room temperature with the broccoli and celery.

Makes about 1 1/2 cups.




Indian Pudding 1



3 cups milk

1 cup heavy (whipping) cream

1/2 cup yellow cornmeal

1/2 cup (lightly packed) light brown sugar

1/2 cup molasses

1 tsp salt

2 tsp ground cinnamon

1/4 tsp ground nutmeg

1/4 tsp ground cloves

1/4 tsp ground ginger

4 large eggs

4 Tablespoons (1/2 stick) unsalted butter, cut into 4 pieces



Preheat the oven to 325 degrees (F). Lightly grease a 6- or 8-cup souffle' dish with butter.


Scald the milk in a medium-size saucepan over medium-low heat.


While the milk is heating, pour the cream into a medium- sized bowl and stir in the cornmeal, sugar, molasses, salt, and spices.


Add the cornmeal mixture to the scalded milk and cook, whisking constantly over medium-low heat until the pudding has thickened to the consistency of syrup, about 5 minutes. Remove it from the heat.


Beat the eggs in a small bowl with a whisk. Add 1/2 cup of the hot cornmeal mixture to the eggs while whisking rapidly. Then vigorously whisk the egg mixture into the remaining cornmeal mixture. Add the butter and stir until it melts.


Pour the pudding into the prepared baking dish, and place the dish in a shallow baking pan on the center oven rack. Pour enough hot water into the larger pan to come two-thirds of the way up the sides of the pudding baking dish.


Bake the pudding until it is set and a tester inserted close to but not in the center comes out clean, about 1-1/4 hours.


Remove the pudding from the water bath and cool slightly.


Serve it warm with vanilla ice cream or heavy cream spooned over the top.


Makes 10 servings.




Indian Pudding 2



5 cups scalded milk

1/3 cup Indian meal (yellow cornmeal)

1/2 cup molasses

1 tsp salt

1 tsp ginger



Pour milk slowly on meal, cook in double boiler twenty minutes, add molasses, salt, and ginger; pour into buttered pudding-dish and bake two hours in slow oven; serve with cream. If baked too rapidly it will not whey. Ginger may be omitted.




Indian Pumpkin Bread



2/3 cup of butter or shortening

4 cups of brown sugar

1 cup of crushed pumpkin, cooked

4 eggs

3 1/2 cups of flour

1 cup of apple juice

1/2 teaspoon of nutmeg

1 cup of nuts, chopped (walnuts or pecans)

1 1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon

1/2 teaspoon of baking powder

2 tablespoons of baking soda

1 cup of applesauce


Cream the butter and sugar together, then add the eggs, one at a time, beating all together real well.

Stir in applesauce and pumpkin.

Next, sift the dry ingredients together and add with the apple juice. Now stir in nuts and pour into 2 greased bread loaf pans.

Bake for 1 hour in a 350 degree oven.




Indian Vegetable Pakoras



Vegetables of your choice

1 small cauliflower

1 potato

1 small onion

Several fresh spinach leaves

1 pound of pea flour

1 teaspoon of powdered red pepper

1 teaspoon of powdered cumin seed




Cut all vegetables into small pieces.

Mix the pea flour with one cup of water, and add the vegetables.

Add red pepper, cumin seed, and season with salt to taste.

Heat oil and drop vegetable mixture by tablespoons into hot oil.

Deep fry at low heat, until brown.

Remove from oil and drain on paper towels.

Serve hot or cold. Serves 8.




Jerusalem Artichoke Soup, Mohegan



2 lb Jerusalem artichokes

6 cups Chicken broth

1 cup Thinly sliced green onions

Salt/pepper to taste

2 tbs Minced fresh dill



Scrub Jerusalem artichokes and cook in simmering water 30-40 minutes, until tender. Drain and discard cooking liquid. Peel and mash artichokes and place in a large saucepan. Stir in chicken broth and green onions. Simmer for about 15 minutes; season to taste with salt/pepper and serve sprinkled with dill.




Lamb and Chili Stew with Blue Balls




1 large onion, chopped

1 Tbs lard, bacon fat or shortening

1 lb boneless lamb, cubed

2 cups diced potatoes

1/2 cup chopped celery tops

1/3 cup red chili pulp (see below), OR,

2 Tbs pure ground chili

3 fresh tomatoes, chopped , OR,

1 cup canned tomatoes, drained and chopped

3 cups hot beef stock

salt to taste


Blue balls:

1 cup finely ground blue cornmeal

2 tsp baking powder

1 tsp salt

1 tsp lard or bacon fat

1/3 cup milk



Dried red chilies for pulp:

To turn dried chili pods into pulp, first wash them, then toast them lightly in a skillet or in a 250 degree oven for about 10 minutes. Under running cold water, remove their stems and all seeds. Cover the pods with boiling water and let them soak for 30 minutes. Drain them, reserving the water, and put them into a blender with a little of the liquid, then blend until smooth. (After handling the pods, wash your hands and fingernails carefully with salt water to avoid transferring any capsaicin oil in the seeds to your face or eyes.) For 1 cup pulp, you will need 8 to 10 large dried New Mexican chili pods.


In a large, wide-mouthed pot like a Dutch oven, saute onion in lard. Add lamb and sear quickly, then add remaining ingredients. Bring to a simmer and stew gently for about 30 minutes. Meantime, make the dumplings.


Mix together meal, baking powder, and salt. Work in lard with your fingertips and add milk. Roll into balls 1 1/2 inches in diameter, drop on top of the stew, cover the stewpot, and steam for 20 to 25 minutes without lifting the lid. The dumplings do not expand but stay mealy.


VARIATION:You can make a good meatless stew by substituting for the lamb a cup of cubed zucchini and a cup of green beans or cooked pinto beans, and by substituting any good vegetable broth for the beef stock.




Meatball Stew



1 Pound Ground Venison

1 Large Egg

1/2 Tsp Salt

Pinch Of Garlic Powder

Pinch Of Basil

Pinch Of Oregano

Pinch Of Pepper

1 Tbls Vegetable Oil

28 Ounces (1 Can) Tomatoes

19 Ounces (1 Can) Whole Potatoes, Drained

2 Cups Frozen Carrots

1 Tsp Basil

1/2 Tsp Oregano

Salt & Pepper To Taste

2 Tbls Unbleached All-Purpose Flour



Beat the egg in a large bowl and mix in the ground venison, salt and remaining seasonings. Mix thoroughly and shape the mixture into 2-inch balls. Heat the oil in a deep skillet and add the meatballs. Cook until well browned and then remove from the skillet. Pat the excess grease from the meatballs and drain the skillet. Place the meat in the skillet and sprinkle lightly with the flour. Stir in the tomatoes, vegetables, 1 Tsp of basil, 1/2 tsp oregano, and salt and pepper to taste. Reduce the heat and simmer for 15 minutes.




Molasses Bread Pudding



8 slices old bread cubed

2 eggs

3 tbs. sugar


3 tbs. molasses (thick)

2 tbs. melted butter

2 cups scalded milk


Arrange bread cubes in a well greased baking dish. Beat eggs, molaases, sugar and salt together. Add milk and butter. Pour over bread cubes. Place in pan of hot water and bake at 350 until firm. Topped with whipped cream. Raisins may be added to pre-baked mixture, but increase milk to 2 1/2 cups.




Moose Pemmican



1 Pound Moose Meat, Well Trimmed

1/2 Cup Raisins

3 Large Dates

2 Tbls Melted Suet

2 Tbls Melted Vegetable Shortening

1 Tbls Lemon Juice



Cut/the meat into thin slices and dry as for jerky in a slow oven, (175-200 Degrees F.) for 4 to 5 hours. Put the dried meat through a coarse grinder, then pulverize it into a fine powder. Grind the raisins and dates together and work into the meat with a fork or your fingers until thoroughly blended.


Combine the melted suet, shortening and lemon juice. Pour over the meat/fruit until the mixture will hold together. Shape into small patties. The Indian pemmican patty was bout 3-inches in diameter and a half inch thick.


This is nourishing and will keep without refrigeration.




Moose Steak With Mushroom Sauce



1 Large Moose Steak

3 tbs Bacon Drippings

1/2 Cup Bouillon Or Consomme

1 Medium Onion, Chopped

1/2 tsp Garlic Powder

3 tbs Tomato Paste

1/2 Cup Water Or Sherry

1 Cup Sliced Fresh Mushrooms

2 tbs Unbleached All-Purpose Flour

1/4 Cup Cream

Dash Of Paprika



Heat the bacon drippings in a large skillet and brow the steak on both sides, thoroughly. Add the broth, onion, garlic, and tomato paste diluted in the water or sherry. Cover the pan and simmer for 1 hour or until the meat is tender. Remove the steak from the pan and keep hot. Add the mushrooms to the pan liquid; cover and simmer for 1 minutes. Thicken with flour and water mixture. Dilute with the cream. Heat thoroughly. Tast for seasoning and pour over teh steak. Sprinkle with the paprika.




Octopus Fritters, Seminole



2 octopuses weighing about 1 1/2 pounds each, cleaned

1 teaspoon salt

2 quarts water

2 quarts ice water with ice

2 medium onions, peeled and minced

2 eggs, beaten

1 cup flour or more as needed

Salt and pepper to taste

Oil for frying



Drop the octopus into a large kettle with rapidly boiling salted water. Cook on medium-high heat for about 25 minutes. Drain and plunge into a bowl filled with ice and ice water. With a coarse brush scrape away all of the purple skin. Cut off the legs and chop fine. Discard the heads.


In a bowl mix together onions, eggs, flour and salt and pepper. Add the chopped octopuses, and blend well. Form mixture into 2 1/2 - 3 inch flat patties.


Heat about 1/2 inch of oil in a large heavy skillet, and fry the octopus fritters until well browned on each side. Serve immediately.


Serves 8




Ogwissimanabo - Yellow Squash Soup



1 medium Yellow squash, diced

4 Shallots, with tops, chopped

1 quart of water

2 tablespoons of maple syrup

5 slices of cucumber (1/2" thick)

1 tablespoon of salt

1/4 teaspoon of black pepper



Place the squash, shallots, water & syrup into a large soup pot & simmer for 40 minutes, until the squash is tender.

Add the cucumbers.

Place everything into a large bowl & mash until it forms a thick, creamy paste (or use a blender).

Put the mixture back into the soup pot & season with salt & pepper.

Simmer for 5 to 10 minutes.

Makes 6 servings




Onion-Dill Bread



Adapted from herb bread recipes several centuries old --

representative of breads baked by the Great Plains Indians and of the woodland dwellers of the Northeast.


1 pkg. (1/4 oz.) dry yeast

1/4 cup all-purpose flour, sifted

1/4 tsp. baking soda

1 tsp. salt

2 Tbs. sugar

1 Tbs. dillweed

2 tsp. grated onion

1/4 cup hot water

2 Tbs. butter, melted

1 cup cottage cheese, lukewarm and 1 egg, beaten lightly

2 cups all-purpose flour, sifted

Dash garlic salt


In a large mixing bowl, combine the yeast, the 1/4 cup flour, soda, salt, sugar, dillweed and onion. Stir in the hot water and melted butter until well mixed. Beat in cottage cheese and egg. Beat in flour gradually to make a stiff batter. Cover bowl with dry cloth and let rise to double in size in a warm place. Stir down. Shape into a rounded loaf. Transfer to a greased casserole dish. Cover again with cloth and allow to rise to nearly double. Dash top with garlic salt. Bake in a preheated 350º F. oven 35-40 minutes.




Paganens (Algonquin Wild Nut Soup)



24 ounces hazelnuts, crushed

6 shallots, with tops

3 tablespoons parsley, chopped

6 cups stock

1 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon black pepper


Place all ingredients in a large soup pot & simmer slowly over a medium heat for 1 1/2 hours, stirring occasionally.

Makes 6 servings




Pan Fried Bear Steak



4 Each Bear Steaks, Cut 1-Inch Thick

1 Large Onion, Sliced

1/2 Cup Vinegar

1/2 Cup Water

1/2 Cup Vegetable Oil

1 Tbls Pickling Spice

1 Tbls Salt

1 Tbls Bacon Fat

Salt And Pepper



Trim all the fat from the bear steaks and wash in cold water. Place the steaks in a glass bowl. Add the onion, vinegar, oil, water, and spices. Marinate for at least 24 hours in the refrigerator, turning frequently. Remove the steaks and pat dry. Fry, over medium heat, in a pan that has been rubbed with oil or fat. To prevent sticking, turn often until done. Add a little mroe fat when necessary.


Marinade is optional.




Peanut Soup



2 cups of dry roasted peanuts, finely chopped

2 cups of chicken broth

2 cups of milk or cream

2 teaspoons of snipped fresh chives

Salt and ground pepper


In a heavy saucepan, combine the peanuts, broth, and milk.

Cook over medium heat for 5 minutes, stirring. Simmer for 10 minutes longer, stirring occasionally.

Sprinkle with chives and season to taste with salt and pepper.

Serves 4




Pemmican 1



1 cup finely ground jerky

1 cup raisins or other dried fruit

1 cup chopped roasted nuts

1/3 teaspoon chile powder

2 tbs honey

4 tbs peanut

3 cups butter



Mix all ingredients thoroughly and press into a shallow pan. Cover with wax paper and refrigerate overnight. Cut into bars and wrap in foil. Pemmican will keep a long time but will become messy in hot weather.




Pemmican 2



2 lb dried beef

1 cup raisins

1/2 cup yellow raisins

Beef suet



Using a blender, mince meat to a fine pulp. Stir in raisins. Chop just enough to break up raisins. Turn into bowl and mix well. Pour melted suet over top, using only enough to hold beef and raisins together.


Allow to cool slightly. Turn onto a jelly roll pan and allow to cool completely. Cut into strips and then into bars about 1" wide and 4" long. Store in ziplock bags. These bars can be stored for several months.




Persimmon Chews



1 cup dark brown sugar, packed

1 cup uncooked persimmon pulp, fresh or frozen and thawed

1 cup black walnuts, chopped

2 egg yolks

1 Tablespoon butter

1/4 cup confectioners'sugar mixed with 1/4 cup finely chopped black walnuts



In the top of a double boiler, combine brown sugar, persimmon pulp, black walnuts, egg yolks and butter. Put boiler top over base containing boiling water; cook for 25 minutes over medium heat, stirring occasionally. Cool for about an hour.


Form into balls about the size of a walnut, roll in the mixture of confectioners' sugar and chopped walnuts, and refrigerate about an hour before serving.


To store, pack in airtight tin with waxed paper between the layers; keep in a cool place.


Yield: About 30 pieces.




Pueblo Adobe Bread



1 1/4 ounce package of active dry yeast

1/2 cup of lukewarm water

1 1/2 cups of hot water

2 tablespoons of lard or shortening

1 tablespoon of sugar

1 teaspoon of salt

4 1/2 to 5 1/2 cups of unbleached flour


Preheat your oven to 375º.

In a small bowl, dissolve the yeast in lukewarm water and set aside.

In a large mixing bowl, combine the hot water, lard, sugar, and salt.

Add 1 cup of flour and beat well.

Stir in the yeast until thoroughly combined.

Add 3 to 3 1/2 cups of flour, beating thoroughly.

Turn onto a lightly floured surface and knead for 10 minutes, adding more flour, if necessary, until the dough is smooth and elastic.

Place the dough in a greased bowl, cover with a towel and let it rise in a warm place until it has doubled in bulk, about 1 hour.

Punch down and divide the dough in half.

Place in 2 smaller greased ovenproof bowls, turning once so the tops are greased and bake for 45 to 50 minutes or until the tops are nicely browned.

Turn the loaves out and let it cool on a rack.

Makes 2 loaves or 12 servings




Pueblo Fire



10 red chili pods

3 cups water

1/2 lb. round steak, cut into small pieces

1 Tbsp. oil

1/4 cup barbecue sauce

1 tsp. garlic salt



Remove stems and shake out seeds from pods, rinse in cold water. Tear pods into pieces; place in blender with water. Blend until smooth. Brown meat in oil. Add chili pod mixture, barbecue sauce and garlic salt. Cook over low heat for one hour. Serve as soup with casserole or beforehand.


Makes 6 servings of 1/3 cup; small servings are practical for this hot soup.




Pueblo Oven Bread



In the pueblos, this bread is baked in outdoor ovens called hornos. This recipe has been adapted for indoor home ovens.


1 package dry yeast

1/2 tablespoon shortening

1/4 cup honey or sugar

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 cup hot water

5 cups all-purpose flour


Dissolve yeast in 1/4 cup warm water. Mix well and set aside.


Combine lard, honey and salt in large bowl. Add 1 cup hot water and stir well. When mixture cools to room temperature, mix well with yeast mixture.


Add 4 cups of four, stirring well after each cup.


Spread 1 cup of flour on cutting board and place dough upon it. Knead until dough is smooth and elastic (about 15 minutes). Put dough in large bowl, cover with cloth and put in warm place until dough doubles in bulk.


Turn dough onto floured surface again and knead well. Divide dough into two equal parts. Shape each into loaves or rounds.


Place the loaves on well-greased cookie sheet, cover with cloth and allow to double in warm place. Put into preheated 350-degree oven and bake until lightly browned (about 1 hour). Use oven's middle rack and place a shallow pan of water on the bottom of the oven




Pueblo Posole



2 cups dried Red Corn Brand Hominy

2 lbs. pork sliced, diced and browned with a clove of garlic

1/4 cup New Mexico ground red chile* or fresh ground pepper to taste

1/2 onion, diced

2 teaspoons oregano

salt to taste


Fill large cooking pot with Red Corn Hominy and water. Cook hominy, covered, over medium heat until kernels burst open and are "al dente" (several hours). Add remaining ingredients, cover, and simmer until meat is tender (2 or 3 hours).




Pueblo Warrior's Casserole



1 lb ground beef

10 oz sharp natural cheddar cheese

1 can cream of chicken soup

4 tsp chopped green chilies

1 pkg (12) corn tortillas

1 cup milk

1 tsp garlic salt



Brown meat; drain. Slice 2 inch chunk from cheese; cut into 6 arrows, 2" x 1/4" thick, for garnish. Shred remaining cheese. Combine meat, shredded cheese, soup, milk, chilies and garlic salt. In a 1-1/2 or 2 quart serving casserole, layer 1 cup meat mixture and 4 tortillas. Repeat layers tow more times. Top with remaining meat mixture. Cover, bake at 350 F. 50 to 55 minutes or until hot. Garnish with cheese arrows, shredded lettuce and small tomato wedges.


Serves 6.




Pumpkin and Corn Dessert



1 small pumpkin

2 ears corn, cut from cob

1/2 cup whole wheat flour

Sugar or honey


Peel, seed and slice pumpkin. Cover with water and simmer until tender.


Place corn kernels in pie tin in 350-degree oven; bake for 15 minutes.


Add corn to pumpkin. Add flour, stirring constantly over low heat until mixture thickens. Add sugar or honey to taste. Serve hot.




Pumpkin Candy



1 1/2 lb uncooked pumpkin meat (from a 3 or 4 pound pumpkin)

2 cups sugar

thinly pared rind of 3 lemons

1 cup fresh lemon juice



Cut pumpkin meat into uniform strips, 4 by 2 inches and 1.4 inch thick. Put the strips in a bowl and sprinkle with the sugar.


Cut the lemon rind into narrow strips. Add to the pumpkin and pour lemon juice over all. Let the mixture stand at least 12 hours or overnight.


Put the mixture in a covered saucepan, bring to a simmer, and simmer gently until the pumpkin becomes translucent but is still firm, about 1 hour.


Remove strips with a slotted spoon and drain on paper towels. Let them dry for 12 hours or overnight. Roll them in granulated sugar or eat them plain. You can also cover them with the syrup and store, refrigerated, where they will keep several weeks.




Pumpkin Soup, Seminole



2 cups chicken stock

1/2 green pepper, diced

1 large tomato

1 green onion

1 sprig parsley

1/4 teaspoon thyme

2 cups cubed cooked pumpkin

1 tablespoon flour

2 tablespoons butter

1 cup milk

1/2 teaspoon nutmeg

1 teaspoon sugar

1/2 teaspoon salt



Place 1 cup chicken stock, green pepper, tomato, onion, parsley and thyme in blender container. Cover and use on medium speed, just until vegetables are coarsely chopped. Pour into a saucepan; simmer 5 minutes.


Return mixture to blender container. Add pumpkin and flour. Cover and use on high speed until mixture is very smooth. Pour mixture into saucepan. Stir in remaining 1 cup chicken stock and all remaining ingredients. Heat to a boil, stirring frequently. Cook 3 minutes longer. Serve hot.


Serves 4 to 6




Red Chili Stew



2 pounds pork, cut into small pieces (save some fat)

5 dried red chiles

1 teaspoon oregano

1/2 teaspoon garlic powder

salt to taste


Wash chiles, removing stems and seeds. Place in blender with 1 cup water and blend into paste consistency. Set aside.


Put pork fat into deep skillet until there is enough on the bottom of the skillet to prevent meat from sticking. Discard remaining fat.


Brown pork lightly. Add the chili paste and mix well, adding water if mixture is too thick. Add oregano and garlic. Cover pan and simmer slowly for one hour.




Rice Pudding



3 tablespoons white rice, uncooked

1 1/2 tablespoons sugar

1 quart milk

1/2 teaspoon salt

3/4 teaspoon cinnamon

2 eggs

1/2 cup raisins or soaked dried apricots


Rinse rice. Add all other ingredients except eggs. Separate eggs and beat whites until very stiff. Beat yolks and fold yolks into rice mixture. Fold in egg whites. Spoon into casserole. Bake in slow oven (250-300 degrees) for 2 hours, stirring several times.




Roast Bear



3 Pounds Bear Roast

3 Large Onions

1 Can Pinapple Slices, Undrained

2 Cups Water



Place the roast in a pan. Pour the water over the meat then cover with pineapple slices. Slice the onions and place along side of the roast. Cover the roast with Aluminum foil and bake for 1 hour. Add the juice from the pineapple and continue baking for another 1 1/2 hours.




Roast Bear In Raisin Sauce



3 to 4 Pounds Bear Roast

3 1/2 Cups Sater

1 1/2 Tsp Dry Mustard

2 Tbls Lemon Juice

1 Tbls Unbleached All-Purpose Flour

1/2 Tsp Salt

1/4 Tsp Pepper

1/4 Cup Seedless Raisins



Cut all the fat from the roast and place in a roasting pan. Pour in 2 cups of water. Cover and roast for 2 1/2 hours at 350 Degrees F. Mix all the dry ingredients in a sauce pan. Slowly mix in the remaining water and lemon juice. Add the raisins.


Cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, until it reaches the consistency of syrup. Pour over the bear roast and continue to rast for another 30 minutes, basting 2 to 3 times throughout this baking time.




Roast Wild Turkey



1 wild turkey, 8-10 pounds

Salt and pepper to taste

2 small apples, sliced in half

1 medium onion, cut in half

2 ribs celery sliced

1 teaspoon sage

6-8 slices bacon

Melted bacon fat



Preheat oven for 20 minutes at 325F.


Sprinkle turkey inside and out with salt and pepper. Place apples, onions and celery slices into the cavity. Sprinkle inside of the cavity with salt, pepper, and sage. Pull legs upward and tie them together with a string. Turn the wings under the bird and secure with toothpicks or a small skewer. Place turkey breast up on a rack in a roasting pan. Cover breast with bacon slices and a cheesecloth soaked in melted bacon fat. Roast in the preheated oven 20 to 25 minutes per pound or until the joints move freely. Baste often with pan juices. Remove from oven and let stand 10-15 minutes before carving.


Serves 8 to 10




Rhubarb Pie



2 c. cooked and cooled rhubarb

2 egg yolks

1 tbsp. cornstarch

1/2 c. milk

1 c. sugar



Mix ingredients and stir well. Put in unbaked pieshell, dot with butter and bake until firm. Bake at 350 degrees. Top with egg whites beaten stiff with 1/4 c. of sugar. Brown in oven.




Salmon Cakes



1 lb canned salmon, flaked (including liquid)

4 juniper berries, crushed

1/3 cup corn meal

2 eggs, lightly beaten

2/3 cup milk



Mix all ingredients together, spoon into a well-greased muffin tin, and bake in a moderate oven, 350 degrees, for 30 minutes. Serve hot or cold.




Salmon Chowder



4 potatoes, peeled and diced

6 cups water

1 1/4 lb fresh salmon, cut into chunks

2 tsp salt

1/8 tsp fresh ground pepper



Simmer the potatoes in the water for 40 minutes or until tender.

Add the remaining ingredients, and simmer for 10 minutes more.




Seafood Corn Pudding, Seminole



4 large ears corn

3 eggs well beaten

2 tbs melted butter

1 tsp sugar

3/4 cup condensed milk

1-1/2 lb small shrimp, shelled

Salt and pepper to taste



Preheat oven to 325F.


Grease well with butter and sprinkle with cornmeal a 1-1/2 quart casserole. Set aside. Grate the fresh corn into a medium bowl. In a separate bowl beat eggs and fold into the corn. Add melted butter, sugar and condensed milk. Blend well. Add shrimp, salt and pepper, and blend well. Pour into the prepared casserole and bake in the preheated oven for 1 hour. Serve immediately.


Serves 6




Seminole Hamburger, Seminole



2 pounds ground beef

1/2 cup chopped onion

Salt and pepper to taste

2 cups cooked and mashed pumpkin

2 1/2 - 3 cups self rising flour

enough water to make a soft dough

Fat or oil for frying



Mix the ground beef, onions, salt and pepper together and set aside.


Mix pumpkin, flour and just enough water to make a soft dough. Knead the dough for a few minutes. Separate into 3-inch balls. Combine kneading, turning and pulling until the dough is elastic and about 1/4 inch thick and flat Fill each piece of dough with a hamburger patty and seal well on all sides. Fry in deep fat or oil until golden brown on all sides. Serve immediately.


NOTE: The pumpkin bread may be fried, without the filling, in 1/4 inch thick pieces about 6 inches round. Fry in hot fat on both sides until golden and crisp.




Seminole Roast Rabbit, Seminole



1 skinned and dressed rabbit

1/2 cup vegetable oil

1 cup all-purpose flour

Salt and pepper to taste




Preheat oven to 425F.


Pat the rabbit dry and stuff with the corn stuffing. Place a piece of foil into the opening. Truss rabbit with a string, by tying together the hind and front legs. Brush rabbit with oil. Let oil drip off. Mix together flour, salt and pepper and sprinkle the rabbit generously with the flour mixture. Place on rack on its side in a roasting pan. Roast in 425xF oven for 10 minutes; reduce heat to 350xF and roast for 1 1/2 hours, turning frequently. Baste rabbit with pan drippings and oil 3-4 times during roasting. Remove from oven and let rest before carving for about 10 minutes.




Seminole Squirrel Stew, Seminole



2 squirrels, cleaned

Salt and pepper to taste

1 cup all-purpose flour

6 tablespoons lard or bacon drippings

2 cups water



Cut squirrels into serving pieces. Mix salt, pepper and flour and dredge the squirrel pieces in the mixture. In a large skillet, heat the fat and fry squirrel pieces, turning occasionally until golden brown. Remove squirrel from the skillet and set aside. Pour off all fat except about 3 tablespoons. Add water to the skillet and bring to boil. Return squirrel to the skillet; bring to boil again, cover and reduce heat. Simmer for about 1 1/2 hours or until the meat is very tender. Serve with corn bread.


Serves 4




Squaw Bread



2 cups water

1/3 cup oil

1/4 cup honey

1/4 cup raisins

5 tbs brown sugar

2 pkg dry yeast

1/4 cup warm water

2 1/2 cup bleached all-purpose flour

3 cups all-purpose whole wheat flour

1 1/2 cups rye flour

1/2 cup powdered milk

2 1/2 tsp salt


melted butter



Combine water, oil, honey, raisins and 4T brown sugar in blender, liquefy. Soften yeast in warm water w/remaining 1T brown sugar. Sift together 1c all- purpose flour, 2c wheat flour, 1c rye flour, powdered milk and salt in large bowl. Add honey and yeast mixtures. Beat at medium speed until smooth (2 minutes). Gradually stir in enough of the remaining flours to make soft dough that leaves the sides of the bowl.


Turn out onto floured surface and knead until smooth and satiny (10 - 12 minutes). Place dough in lightly greased bowl and turn to grease surface. Cover and let rise until double (about 1 1/2 hours). Punch down and let rest 10 minutes. Divide into 4 round loaves and place on greased cookie sheets sprinkled w/cornmeal. Cover and let rise in warm place until doubled (1 hour).


Bake at 375F 30 - 35 minutes. Brush w/melted butter and cool on racks.




Summer Bean and Barley Salad



1 1/2 cups baby lima beans

1 cup cut green beans (1 inch pieces)

1 cup cut wax beans (1 inch pieces)

2 cups cooked barley, cooled and fluffed with a fork

1/2 cup diced red onion

1/2 cup diced green pepper

1/2 cup diced celery

1/3 cup red wine vinegar

2 tablespoons olive oil

2 teaspoons Dijon mustard

1 clove garlic, minced

In a large saucepan, over high heat, bring 1 1/2 quarts water to a boil.


Add the lima beans, green and wax beans. Cook for 8 minutes or until just tender. Drain and rinse with cold water. shake off excess water. Transfer to a large bowl.


Add the barley, diced red onion, green pepper and celery. Toss lightly.


In a small bowl, whisk together the vinegar, olive oil, mustard, and garlic. Pour over the salad and toss well. Refrigerate for 1-2 hours before serving.




Sunflower Seed Soup



2 cups of sunflower seeds, hulled

6 cups of chicken broth

3 small green onions, thinly sliced

2 tablespoons of chopped fresh dill

Salt and ground pepper to taste


Place the sunflower seeds in a large saucepan.

Add the chicken broth and green onions.

Cook, uncovered, over low heat for about 1 hour.

Stir in the dill and season with salt and pepper to taste.


Serves 4 to 6




Sweet Potato Bread



2 large sweet potatoes

1 cup corn meal

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1 1/2 tsp salt

2 Tbs honey

2 Tbs melted butter

1 1/2 cup warm milk

2 eggs, lightly beaten



Parboil the sweet potatoes for about 50 minutes or until just tender. Cool, peel and cut into 1.4 inch cubes. . Sift together the dry ingredients and place in a mixing bowl. Combine the honey, butter, milk and eggs, and mix into the dry ingredients. . Fold in the cubed sweet potatoes, pour batter into a well-greased 8 inch by 8 inch by 2 inch baking dish and bake in a hot oven, 400 degrees, for 1 hour. Cut into squares and serve hot, with lots of butter. This is a bread to be eaten with a fork.




Venison Curry



3 Tbls Fat

2 Cloves Garlic, Minced

1 Pound Venison Shoulder, Cut Into 1-Inch Cubes

2 Medium Onions, Sliced

1 Tbls Curry Powder

1/2 Cup Raisins

1 Cup Tomatoes, Canned





Sear the venison in hot oil. Remove from the heat and set aside. In a heavy skillet, heat 3 Tbls of fat. When hot add the garlic and onions. Cook until lightly browned. Stir in the curry powder. Add the tomatoes and raisins and simmer for 10 minutes. Add the venison cubes to the tomato mixture. Season with salt and simmer for 1 1/2 hours. Add water when necessary to maintain the liquid level.




Venison Meat Balls



2 Pounds Ground Venison

2 Large Eggs, Slightly Beaten

2 Cups Cooked Rice

1 Tsp Salt

1/2 Tsp Pepper

1/2 Tsp Chili Pepper

1 Ounce Soy Sauce

2 Tbls Hickory Flavored Barbecue Sauce

1/4 Cup Water

Prepared Spaghetti Sauce



Mix all of the ingredients except the Spaghetti Sauce together and shape into balls. Lay the balls in the bottom of a roasting pan and cover with spaghetti sauce.


Bake at 325 Degrees F. until done.




Venison Ribs And Sauce



5 Pounds Venison Ribs

Brine Made From 1 Part Vinegar To 3 Parts Water

2 Tbls Salt

1 Large Onion, Sliced

Melted Margarine

2 Each Bay Leaves


Rib Sauce:


1 1/2 Cup Water

1 Cup Chili Sauce

1/4 Cup Steak Sauce

2 Tbs Lemon Juice

1/2 Tsp Chili Powder (Or To Taste)

1/2 Tsp Salt



Make enough brine from vinegar and water to cover the ribs. Add the bay leaves, salt and onions. Marinate for 48 hours in the refrigerator.


Drain and pat dry. Place the ribs in a shallow pan and brush ribs with the melted margarine. Roast for 30 minutes at 450 Degrees F. Baste once again with the margarine and reduce the heat to 350 Degrees F. In a saucepan, combine sauce ingredients and bring to a boil over medium heat. Pour the sauce over the ribs and bake for 1 1/2 to 2 hours, basting often.




Venison Shepherd's Pie



1 1/2 Pounds Ground Venison

1 Medium Onion, Chopped

4 Tbls Shortening

1 Cup Beef Gravy

1 Cup Carrots, Cooked

1 Cup Peas

3 Cups Potatoes, Mashed





Melt the shortening in a skillet and add the onions. Cook onions until transparent but not brown. Add the ground venison and fry until well browned. Drain. Pour the venison and onion mixture into a 2-quart casserole dish. Mix in the gravy and then add the carrots and peas in alternate layers. Then cover the mixture with mashed potatoes. Dot with margarine and sprinkle with paprika.


Bake at 400 Degrees for 25 to 30 minutes.




Whitney Pot Roast



4 Pounds Moose Steaks, 1/2 Pound Each

4 Large Onions, Sliced

1/2 Cup Wine Vinegar

1 Small Can Tomato Paste (6 Ounces?) Diluted With

1 Small Can Of Water (Use The Same Can)




1/2 Cup Butter Or Oil

2 Cloves Garlic, Minced

1 Tbls Pickling Spice, tie in a bag with string

3 Bay Leaves



Place the steaks in cold water overnight. The next day, pat dry and season with salt, pepper, and paprika. In a skillet, quickly brown the steaks in the butter or oil. Remove the meat from the skillet and set aside. Saute the onion and garlic until transparent, but not browned. Add the remaining ingredients and blend well. Place the meat in a heavy roasting pan and pour the onion mixture over it. Cover and cook in a 350 Degree F. oven for 2 hours or until the meat is tender. Remove the spice bag. Thicken the liquid with flour and water. Serve.




Wild Sage Bread



1 package dry yeast

1 cup cottage cheese

1 egg

1 tablespoon melted shortening

1 tablespoon sugar

2 teaspoons crushed dried sage

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon baking soda

2 1/2 cups flour


Combine sugar, sage, salt, baking soda and flour. Dissolve yeast in 1/4 cup warm water. Beat egg and cottage cheese together until smooth. Add melted shortening and yeast.


Add flour mixture slowly to egg mixture, beating well after each addition until a stiff dough is formed.


Cover dough with cloth and put in warm place until double in bulk (about 1 hour). Punch dough down, knead for one minute and place in well-greased pan. Cover and let rise for 40 minutes.


Bake in a 350-degree oven for 50 minutes. Brush top with melted shortening and sprinkle with crushed, roasted pine nuts or coarse salt.




Yam Cakes, Seminole



1 1/4 cups cooked yams, mashed

2 cups all-purpose flour

2 teaspoons sugar

1 teaspoon salt

3 tsp double acting baking powder

1/2 cup vegetable oil

1/2 cup milk



Preheat oven to 425F.


Place the yams into a bowl and set aside. In another bowl mix together flour, sugar, salt and baking powder. In a measuring cup combine oil and milk; add to yams and blend well with a fork. Add the flour mixture and mix lightly with the fork just until the mixture holds together.


Turn out on a lightly floured surface and knead for about 1 minute, or until the pastry is smooth and holds together. On a floured surface roll out the pastry to 1/4 inch thickness and cut with a floured biscuit cutter. Butter lightly and sprinkle baking sheet with flour. Tap baking sheet on edge of sink to get rid of excess flour. Place the rounds on the baking sheet and bake in oven for 15-20 minutes. Serve hot with butter on the side. Cold cakes may be split and toasted.


Makes about 17 3-in cakes.




Zuni Green Chili Stew



3 lb boned lamb, 1 1/2 inch cubes flour for dusting

2 Tbs cooking oil

1/4 tsp black pepper

6 dried juniper berries, crushed

2 yellow onions, chopped

5 1/2 cups canned hominy

1 dried hot red chili pepper, crushed

1 Tbs salt

2 cloves garlic, crushed

2 tsp oregano

1/2 cup minced fresh parsley

6 green peppers, quartered

1 quart water



Dust lamb cubes lightly with flour Brown lamb slowly on all sides in the cooking oil in a large heavy kettle. As the meat browns, add the black pepper and crushed juniper berries.


Transfer meat to paper toweling to drain. In the same kettle, saute the onions slowly until golden. Return meat to kettle. Mix the remaining ingredients, cover and simmer for 1 1/2 hours, stirring occasionally.




Zuni Summer Succotash



1 lb boneless lamb, cubed

3 cups hot beef stock

1 clove garlic, mashed

4 mint leaves, crushed

1/2 tsp salt

1/4 tsp black pepper

2 cups green beans

2 summer squash

3 ears fresh sweet corn

4 green onions, with tops

1/4 cup shelled and crushed sunflower seeds



Gently simmer the lamb in the stock, together with the garlic, mint, salt and pepper, until it is tender, 30 to 40 minutes.


Meanwhile, prepare vegetables. Remove the ends of the green beans and cut each in two. Cut squash into small cubes. Cut kernels from the corn cobs. Chop onions and their tops. Add vegetables to the meat and simmer until vegetables are tender but still crisp, 5 to 8 minutes. Stir in the sunflower seeds to thicken the broth.


VARIATION:Add 6 squash blossoms to the vegetables, either whole or chopped. Add 2 green chilies, roasted, seeded and chopped.